A private limited business must go through the IPO, or initial public offering, process in order to sell its shares to the general public. Through the IPO, the corporations raise money from the general public for debt repayment, working capital needs, acquisitions, and other corporate goals. Investors in initial public offerings (IPOs) should submit an online IPO application through a bank or stockbroker. Investors in the upcoming IPO may submit an application online using UPI or through their bank using ASBA.


DRHP Report

DRHP is the main offer document submitted to SEBI for IPO listing. The original offer document submitted to SEBI is the DRHP (Draft Red Herring Prospectus), and after approval, the RHP (Red Herring Prospectus) is submitted. Investors can learn more about the issuing firm through the IPO offer materials, which include information on the issue’s purpose, the company’s finances, the promoters’ shareholdings, etc.

Another significant document made public by the IPO registrar after the allocation is the IPO Basis of Allotment. It includes information on how many applications were received during the IPO bidding process and how each investor category was allotted (QIB, NII, and RII).

SME IPO – Initial Public Offering

An option for small and medium-sized businesses to go public is known as a SME IPO. Major IPOs enable larger businesses to go public and raise money. The small and medium enterprise IPO, on the other hand, is designed for businesses that are smaller in size and need to raise money from the public.

The SME is listed on the NSE Emerge Platform or the BSE SME. Small and medium-sized businesses have access to the SME IPO platform in order to list on the indices. The requirements for a SME IPO are that I the post-issue paid-up capital must be less than Rs. 25 crores and the post-issue capital must be at least Rs. 1 crore.

Investors in SME IPOs in India may submit their applications online via ASBA or UPI, or they may send paper applications to brokers or banks.

General Terms in IPO:

  1. Qualified Institutional Buyers (QIB): QIBs are Financial Institutions, Banks, FIIs, and Mutual Funds that have registered with SEBI. QIBs typically represent small investors who use pension plans, ULIP plans from insurance companies, and mutual funds to make investments.
  2. Non-Institutional Investors (NII): Non-institutional bidders include retail individual investors (HNI), NRIs, businesses, trusts, etc. who make bids on shares valued more than Rs. 2 lakhs (NII). They do not need SEBI registration, unlike QIB bidders.
  3. Retail Investors: Retail investors are those individuals, including NRIs, who apply for up to Rs 2 lakh in an IPO.
  4. Employee (EMP): A group of qualified workers with a reserved quota in the IPO.


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